安徽快三

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          建筑節能向超低能耗邁進 產業規模將達千億元級

          查看:1043 次
          發布時間: 2017-3-12

          據業內人士預計:到2020年,我國至少將建成5000個超低能耗建筑,建筑面積超過1億平方米,產業規模將達到千億元級,促進建筑規劃、設計、施工、咨詢、建材、設備行業的全面升級換代,使中國建筑節能工作逐步邁入超低能耗的4.0時代。

          ■ 超低能耗正在成為全球建筑節能的發展趨勢

          被動式超低能耗建筑是國際上近年來快速發展的能效高且居住舒適的建筑,在日益嚴重的能源危機和環境污染的背景下,它是應對氣候變化、節能減排的最重要途徑,代表了世界建筑節能的發展方向。

          全球氣候變化是當今世界以及今后長時期內人類所面臨的最嚴峻的環境與發展挑戰,建筑是節能減排、應對氣候變化最重要的領域之一。國際上建筑節能技術進步非常快,已從低能耗建筑向被動式超低能耗建筑到產能建筑上發展。

          各發達國家提出近零能耗發展目標。北美目前共有零能耗項目3339個,涉及用戶6177個單元。美國2009年10月發布了“在環境、能源、經濟效益的聯邦領先措施”,要求自2020年起,所有計劃新建或租賃的聯邦建筑須以建筑物達到零能耗為導向進行設計,使建筑物可在2030年達到凈零能耗。聯邦政府資產的購買或租賃中需將零能耗作為考核指標之一。到2040年50%的商業建筑達到零能耗;2050年所有美國商業建筑達到凈零能耗。

          歐盟2002年制定了建筑能效指令,2010年修訂的建筑能效指令提出到2020年歐洲大陸所有新建建筑都必須達到近零能耗水平。目前,歐洲已有27個國家在實施這一能效指令,并且各國都有自己的分目標。其中,德國提出2019年起政府部門擁有或使用的建筑達到近零能耗,2021年起新建建筑達到近零能耗,2050年所有存量建筑達到近零能耗。英國要求2016年后新建建筑達到零能耗,2019年后公共建筑達到零能耗。

          在東亞,日本制定了到2030年從基準建筑、超低能耗、近零能耗到零能耗的建筑節能政策路線圖。2020年新建公共建筑實現近零能耗,2030年所有新建建筑為近零能耗建筑。韓國2014年7月頒布《應對氣候變化的零能耗建筑行動計劃》,制定了相應的促進政策和激勵措施,并提出2025年全面實現零能耗建筑目標。

          此外,中國臺灣地區能源部門和臺灣工業技術研究院聯合成立了臺灣零能耗建筑技術聯盟,超過1000家業內領先企業加入到聯盟中。

          顯然,在過去的10多年中,被動式超低能耗綠色建筑作為一種低能耗和極高舒適度的節能建筑,被一些國家和組織確定為國家住宅標準或未來城市發展規劃的方向,成為國際上節能建筑的潮流和趨勢,在世界各地得到高度關注和迅速推廣應用。

          中國建筑科學研究院環能院院長徐偉說,各個國家關于零能耗建筑的定義、名稱、路線、政策、推廣方式不盡相同,但主要發達國家和經濟體政府相繼制定了邁向零能耗建筑的發展目標,都在尋找適合本國的零能耗建筑發展的技術體系和優化路徑。

          被動式超低能耗綠色建筑,已然站到了世界節能建筑領域的最前沿。對于能源與環境壓力很大的中國,被動式超低能耗建筑受到重視并走上臺前,不僅具有現實意義也是必然的。

          ■ 政策支持、技術引領,全國超低能耗建筑獲得大力推廣

          代表世界建筑節能發展方向的被動式超低能耗綠色建筑,其特點順應了我國生態文明建設和新型城鎮化建設的需求,自2009年一登陸我國,便受到了住房和城鄉建設部的高度重視,并將其列為“十二五”期間建設領域節能低碳發展的重要內容。

          我國的建筑節能起步于上世紀80年代。1986年原建設部頒布的《民用建筑節能設計標準》要求新建居住建筑,在1980年當地通用設計能耗水平基礎上節能30%,開啟了我國建筑節能新階段。近年來隨著氣候、環境問題日益顯著,公眾對生活環境質量的要求逐步提高,擔負建筑節能重任的住房城鄉建設部,對綠色建筑以及可以在建筑節能上發揮巨大作用的被動式超低能耗綠色建筑高度重視并積極推廣。

          2011年6月,住房城鄉建設部與德國交通、建設和城市發展部共同簽署了《關于建筑節能與低碳生態城市建設技術合作諒解備忘錄》,開啟了我國發展被動式超低能耗建筑的歷程,建造被動式低能耗建筑成為中德兩國合作的重要內容。根據中德技術合作的需求,住房和城鄉建設部在大量深入調研的基礎上,確定了秦皇島市的“在水一方”和哈爾濱市的“辰能·溪樹庭院”兩個被動式超低能耗建筑建設示范項目,并將之正式列入住房和城鄉建設部2011年科技項目計劃。

          同年,在中國國務院總理李克強、德國總理默克爾的共同見證下,中德生態園被動房項目正式簽約,建立被動房中國技術中心,力促產業轉型。

          2014年,全國住房城鄉建設工作會議提出大力推廣被動式超低能耗綠色建筑,進一步提高建筑節能水平。根據這一精神,住房和城鄉建設部建筑節能與科技司于2014年3月在秦皇島召開了被動式超低能耗綠色建筑示范工程現場交流會,提出要增強緊迫感、急迫感,進一步推廣擴大推動超低能耗綠色建筑穩步發展,將把中國節能建筑推向新的高度。

          在政府有關部門的積極推動下,被動式低能耗綠色建筑的示范項目已經實施并初見成果。如今,秦皇島“在水一方”住宅小區、哈爾濱“辰能·溪樹庭院”、河北省建筑科技研發中心等被動式超低能耗綠色建筑在中國拔地而起,成為了中國被動式超低能耗綠色建筑的典范,對全國被動式超低能耗建筑的推廣起到了良好示范作用。

          為實行技術引領,住房城鄉建設部制定的《被動式超低能耗綠色建筑技術導則》已于2015年11月下發。導則明確了我國被動式超低能耗綠色建筑的定義、不同氣候區技術指標及設計、施工、運行和評價技術要點,為全國被動式超低能耗綠色建筑的建設提供指導。

          今年2月,中共中央、國務院印發的《關于進一步加強城市規劃建設管理工作的若干意見》明確提出發展被動式房屋等綠色節能建筑。這是首次在國家文件中明確發展被動式建筑。據相關人士透露,2016年國家工程標準計劃——《近零能耗建筑技術標準》已經立項,預計2018年完成報批,2019年實施。而住房和城鄉建設部將研究制定推動被動式超低能耗綠色建筑發展的激勵政策,鼓勵更多的開發商建造被動房。

          此外,幾年來依托示范項目建設,住房和城鄉建設部科技與產業化發展中心等單位對來自全國各地的設計院、房地產商、施工單位以及監理和建筑節能主管部門的人員進行技術培訓。全國各地僅到“在水一方”學習的已過萬人。日前,全國首次被動式超低能耗綠色建筑技術導則培訓班在河北省高碑店市舉辦,報名200多人實際參加者超過400人,不得不設分會場。

          ■ 星火燎原,超低能耗綠色建筑正在興起

          國家有關部門對超低能耗被動式住宅的大力推廣,得到各地方政府的積極響應,被動房的發展被列上日程,相關政策甚至技術標準也紛紛制定。而一些企業也看到了被動房發展的良好前景,相繼轉向發展被動房。

          據住房城鄉建設部建筑節能與科技司組織開展的對全國超低能耗被動式項目進行摸底調研,截至2016年2月,全國范圍內共有項目100個,分布在21個省、自治區、直轄市。其中公共建筑66項、居住建筑32項,工業建筑2項。嚴寒地區13項、寒冷地區62項、夏熱冬冷地區14項、夏熱冬暖地區11項。住房和城鄉建設部建筑節能與科技司國際合作處處長仝貴嬋曾介紹說,全國各地都在積極謀劃建設被動房項目,我國一些地方政府以及企業,都把發展被動房作為目標,積極制定相關政策。

          2014年河北省明確提出,全省各設區市和省直管縣都要謀劃建設1個~3個被動房示范項目。讓被動式超低能耗綠色建筑理念覆蓋所有建筑。

          河北省組織編制的我國首部《被動式低能耗居住建筑節能設計標準》于2015年5月1日起實施。此外,河北省正在組織編制的被動式低能耗建筑施工工法,將為全省其他城市順利開展示范項目進而在全省大面積推廣提供技術支持。

          河北省保定市在今年正式實施的《保定市提高居住建筑節能標準實施方案》中明確,自2016年1月1日起取得土地使用權的項目,全面執行河北省《居住建筑節能設計標準(節能75%)》,鼓勵建設超低能耗被動式綠色建筑。在市中心城區建設超低能耗被動式綠色建筑的項目,其土地出讓底價每畝下浮20萬元,且在同等條件下出讓土地優先競得。

          山東省積極響應住房城鄉建設部關于大力推廣被動式超低能耗綠色建筑的號召,迅速落實相關工作:開展被動房建設調研交流,組織被動房規模化示范,設立被動房適宜技術研究課題,開展被動房施工技術培訓,籌建被動房產業聯盟……山東省7個市的11個試點項目已經被全部納入住房和城鄉建設部2014年度中德合作被動式超低能耗綠色建筑示范項目,數量、規模居全國首位。

          被動房在山東省的遍地開花,很大程度上依靠的是政府主管部門的推動及財政上的補貼,調動了地方對被動房推廣的積極性。例如,為了推動建筑能效向更高層次發展,山東啟動了首批省級被動式超低能耗綠色建筑試點示范項目,山東省級財政列支6000萬元,對其中由政府投資建設的8個公益性項目實行增量成本和技術咨詢服務全額補助。對另外3個企業建設主體示范項目,在稅收和相關政策方面給予優惠。

          江蘇省海門市率先頒布政策扶持被動式超低能耗綠色建筑發展。在該市《關于加快推進建筑產業現代化的實施意見》中明確,從2015年至2023年分示范引領期、推廣發展期、普及應用期三個階段使被動式超低能耗綠色建筑比例逐步從5%提高到10%、20%以上。

          據了解,目前青海、寧夏住房城鄉建設廳都在研究被動房的發展政策。全國各種被動房聯盟紛紛成立。值得注意的是,近年來一些民間企業也加入到被動式超低能耗綠色建筑的研發和推廣行列,成為促進這種建筑發展的又一力量。

          目前,全國被動式超低能耗綠色建筑正有序地展開,被動房的推廣和發展已呈現喜人態勢。

          ■ 建筑節能邁入超低能耗時代,我們如何迎接

          發展被動式超低能耗綠色建筑符合百姓、建筑商、國家和人類各方的利益。如果被動房在全國全面推廣的話,或將改變中國整個建筑行業的能耗現狀,緩解能源需求和溫室氣體減排的壓力。而其關鍵在于有效推廣的路徑。

          建筑節能是一個長期的目標,超低能耗建筑的出現,為我們提示了又一種實現目標的途徑和技術。但正如業內人士所指出的,被動房的遍地開花結果還有許多工作要做。中國超低能耗綠色建筑的大規模發展,也離不開高質量技術產品、市場經濟吸引力和政府政策支持這三方面動力。

          業內普遍認為,在超低能耗建筑的發展上,國外的經驗和理念十分重要,但也應研究制定符合我國情況的相關技術標準。同時,國內不同地區的各項條件也不盡相同,南方與北方、東部與西部,都應該研究適合自己的完全實現近零能耗的標準,應發展中國自己的體系,提升自己的能力。

          徐偉認為,要繼續提升建筑節能標準,將被動式超低能耗綠色建筑作為我國建筑節能工作的發展方向,節能建筑技術規劃需要先行,通過試點示范、導則標準使其進一步落實、實施。住房和城鄉建設部科技與產業化發展中心副主任文林峰希望,被動式低能耗建筑可以與綠色建筑、建筑工業化、住宅產業化結合,形成全國綜合示范項目。

          河北省住房城鄉建設廳節能科技處處長程才實表示,要降低被動式超低能耗建筑建造成本,其路徑有三條:一要從科研上求突破,為生產價廉物美的節能產品提供技術支撐。二是支持示范應用成熟的先進技術規模化、專業化、本土化生產,有效降低新型節能產品的成本,為被動房建設提供價廉物美的節能建材產品。三是重點抓好墻體保溫、門窗等建筑節能核心技術的研發、生產和推廣應用,在各個環節最大限度地降低成本。

          北京五合國際工程設計顧問有限公司盧求說,推動被動房發展的主要動力:一是技術進步。理論研究的深入,計算機模擬技術提高,技術系統的完善與簡化,高質量門窗、保溫材料、高效新風機組等產品的研發與量產。二是經濟動力。技術的進步,產品成本不斷提高,導致增量成本相對更低,被動房的建設經濟上有吸引力。三是政府的推動和社會意識進步。社會范圍環保意識的提高,擺脫對化石能源依賴的國家政策,政府資助政策都對被動房大發展起到重要推動作用。

          目前,我國建筑節能已成共識,以被動房為代表的超低能耗標準將成為建筑業推廣的主流趨勢。整體的社會環境、技術條件對節能的深度開展也十分有利。為此,建筑業需要集體發力,加快轉變發展方式,并依托自身的科技進步和技術創新,積極探索符合本國國情的被動房標準。被動式超低能耗建筑必將在我國得到全面發展,并改變整個建筑業的現狀。

          來源:中國建設報



           
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